Vegetable Oil

Vacuum is necessary during various steps of vegetable

oil processing. These steps essentially include hydrogenation, fractionation, bleaching, deodorization and de-acidification.

Out of all vacuum equipments, Ejector Vacuum System has established the superiority and versatility of their use as compared to the mechanical vacuum pump.

The most outstanding advantage of the Steam Jet Ejector is the total absence of moving parts, which eliminate mechanical breakdown, and assures constant and dependable operation with freedom from repairs.

No adjustment or lubrication is required nor are any specially trained operators necessary as their operation is very simple.

Over and above this, as Steam Jet Vacuum System convey at very high velocity which are many times the speed of sound, they are capable of handling large volume under vacuum thus making them eminently suitable for deodorization application wherein high quantity of open / sparging steam has to be handled.

  • Bleaching / drying
  • Deodorizing
  • Fractionation
  • Distillative de-acidification

Ejector & Booster

A Steam Jet Ejector is simplified type of vacuum pump or compressor, consisting of three basic parts :

  1. Nozzle
  2. Mixing chamber
  3. Diffuser.

The Nozzle discharges a high velocity Steam Ejector across a suction chamber that is connected to the equipment to be evacuated. The process vapours are entrained by this Steam Jet and carry into a Venturi shape diffuser, which convert the velocity energy of the steam into pressure energy enabling discharge ultimately to atmosphere.



The Ejectors are generally categorized into one of four types: 

  1. Single Stage.
  2. Multi-stage condensing.
  3. Multi-stage non-condensing.
  4. Multi-stage with both condensing and non-condensing stages.

Lower suction pressure is obtained by staging of the Ejectors. The number of stages of Ejectors is depended on the suction pressure required. Nominal range of suction pressure for number of Ejector is stated below:

Stages Nominal range of pressure (in torr) Nominal range of Vacuum (in mm Hg (v)
Single stage 80 – 300 torr 460 – 680 mm Hg (v)
Second stage 12 – 100 torr 660 – 748 mm Hg (v)
Third stage 4 – 25 torr 735 – 756 mm Hg (v)
Fourth stage 4 – 0.06 torr 756 – 759.4 mm Hg (v)
Fifth stage 0.6 – 0.02 torr 759.4 – 759.98 mm Hg (v)
Sixth stage 0.05 – 0.01 torr 759.95 to 759.99 mm Hg (v)

Effect of Operational change on critical flow Booster / Ejector Performance 

Motive Pressure Discharge Pressure Suction Pressure Suction Capacity
Decrease Constant Increase rapidly Decrease rapidly
Constant Increase Increase rapidly Decrease rapidly
Constant Constant Increase Increase
Constant Constant Decrease Decrease
Increase Constant Constant Decrease rapidly
Constant Decrease Constant Unchanged

A four stage Ejector System is normally used for Continuous Deodorizers where In the nominal operating suction pressure is 1.5- 2.5 torr while a three stage Ejector System is used for Batch Deodorizer where a nominal suction pressure is 5 6 torr. However, nowadays, physical refining of some of the oil including rice barn, Soya involves very low operating suction pressure of about 0.5 torr for optimum deodorization which calls for installation of a five stage Ejector System.Due to high cost of power available from most of the State Electricity Boards, many of the large refineries are installing their own captive power plants. Many a times, low- pressure steam is available as exhaust from the backpressure turbine of their captive power plant. Instead of condensing this waste low-pressure steam and using it as boiler feedwater, the same can be utilized to motivate Ejectors for deodorizers or De-acidifiers.

As the cost of this low-pressure waste steam is very less, the running cost of the Plant reduces drastically as the Booster/Ejector Vacuum System utilizes majority of the steam in a refinery.

Boosters and Ejectors have been supplied for as low as 0.5 Kg/cm2 (g) motive steam pressure and as high as 40 Kg/cm2 (g). Cooling water temperature also plays a very major role for the efficiency of the Ejector System. Roughly, for every 2°C, increase in the cooling water inlet temperature of the inter-condenser from 32°C will increase the steam consumption by about 10% and vice versa. Therefore, cooling tower should always be properly maintained.

Also, nowadays, considering high cost of energy, mainly steam, most of the installations have incorporated multiple nozzle Boosters which consume about 15 20% lesser steam compared to conventional single nozzle Booster designed for the same motive and suction pressure and capacity.Mazda Limited in India supplies these special multiple nozzle Boosters since last ten years in collaboration with world leaders

Mazda can therefore, claim to be instrumental in improving the efficiency of various refineries and saving India’s precious natural resources.